In order to test a map it must be played on a map testing server. The map editor can upload the map for you, but you can always manually upload a map.
To have your map added to the official public map rotation the Map Testing Committee must judge your map and accept it. Players who have maps added to rotation are awarded with a flair.
When a map is taken out of public rotation it joins the retired maps. Maps in this category are playable from private games. There is a low chance that a retired map will spawn within a public game as a throwback map. Higher rated maps have a greater spawn chance.